"It is the period of great awakening for the human society. Particularly the twentieth century stands testimony to so many changes in the world in the field of science and technology and a series of social, cultural revolutions. The two world wars that threw the world into a chaos, the Bolshevik Revolution and the upsurge in the industrial society, the spirit of freedom that bid adieu to colonial empire gave the world a new direction. It is the century that sent man to the moon. Amidst this, … there was a strong demand for the protection human beings against all kinds of exploitation and oppression. The learners of this century need to internalize the spirit of human rights to uphold humanity. The three texts are really touching and apt to the theme."

Part-A: Jamaican Fragment

The writer of this story is A L Hendricks is a Jamaican writer. The word fragment means ‘a piece’. It can also be understood that it is a small piece of example taken to represent the whole Jamaican society. The two boys-one brown and the other white- puzzle the writer who was on his usual walk. The incident that he saw makes him worried as the two boys appear to represent the oppressing and the oppressed races. But the same two boys  surprise the writer next day with their role reversal. The writer had a sigh of relief as he concluded that this is not what he thought to be . The end of the story is quite fascinating.

Part-B: Once upon a Time

This is a poem the African poet Gabriel Okara. The poet ridicules the hypocrisy practiced by the people of the present times. The poem is a biting criticism on the society for not being truthful in their words and deeds. Reading this poem, every one feels that hypocrisy is dominant in every society. It gives a new dimension to the reader that there is some repentance in the society for being so insincere. The reader, finally is left with a hope that somewhere, someday there is an end to this. The language used is simple but imagery is very effective.

Part-C: What is my Name?

The place of translation in literature plays a catalyst role. It helps in spreading the ideas and emotions from one language to the other. But the success of translated works largely depends on how effective the translation is. Translation is not just translating language but translating the idea, translating the concept without taking the life out of it. The story writer, P Satyavathi is a feminist. The present story is about a woman who forgot her name. This is an unlikely incident but is a symbol of how the woman loses her identity, especially after marriage. Everyone knows her as Mrs … This story portrays beautifully the frantic efforts of a woman to establish her own identity.


  • Be flanked by (v) : to have something on one or both sides
  • Sturdy (adj) : strong and healthy
  • Hazel (adj) : reddish/greenish brown
  • Imperiously (adv) : haughtily
  • Shuffled (v) : to walk by dragging (one's feet) slowly along
  • Bidding (n) : ordering
  • At one's beck and call : (idiom) be ready to do what someone asks
  • Stride (v) : to walk with long steps
  • Abjectly (adv) : completely without pride
  • Impute (v) : claim that someone has done something unjustly
  • Cock-tail (n) : a drink usually made from a mixture of one or more alcoholic drinks.
  • Conform (v) : to be and thinking the same way as most other people in a group or Society; normally acceptable
  • Portrait (n) : a painting, drawing or photograph of a person especially of the head and shoulders.
  • Good - riddance (n) : a feeling of relief when an unwanted person leaves
  • Muting (adj) : changing all the time; expressionless / not expressed in speech
  • fangs (n) : long, sharp teeth of some animals like snakes and dogs.
  • Swab (v) : clean
  • Dexterous (adj) : skillful
  • Sumptuous (adj) : luxurious, splendid
  • Mopping (v) : cleaning / washing
  • Perturb (v) : bother / disturb / trouble
  • Immerse (v) : absorb oneself in something
  • Giggling (v) : laughing nervously
  • Frantically (adv) : worriedly / anxiously
  • Maternity home (n): house of one's parents
  • Parch (v) : dehydrate
  • Incognito (adv) : having a concealed identity
  • Fish (v) : search

Idioms and Phrases

  • At some one’s beck and call (idiom) : be ready to do what someone asks
  • Up and down (phrase) : in two directions


  • Coarse : crude, impure, rough, unpurified
  • Elegant : polished, refined, graceful
  • Zeal : ardour, cordially, devotion, eagerness
  • Wail : bemoan, deplore, lament, mourn, cry, weep


  • Tender x hard, strong
  • Zeal x apathy